SFBW treatment systems are expected to principally target particulate removal prior to recycle or discharge of the treated SFBW, though secondary considerations can include reduction of soluble metals (e.g., manganese) or removal of DBP precursors prior to recycle. Particulate removal systems that have the additional benefit of producing residuals with higher percent solids are typically desirable and beneficial, especially at locations with solids handling limitations.
Standard-Rate systems include standard-rate dissolved air flotation (DAF) and processes employing gravity separation, such as plate or tube settlers, or quiescent settling basins (i.e., often referred to as "conventional" clarification). High-rate systems can potentially require a much smaller footprint, including:
High-Rate Solids Contact Clarification Processes
- Two stage processes with internal and external solids recycle and contact prior to tubes or plates
- Two stage processes with plate settlers prior to an upflow buoyant media clarifier
- Two stage processes with microsand ballasted solids contact prior to tubes or plates