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 *Source Water Protection

A significant human health and regulatory concern associated with livestock, poultry, and horse wastes are pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites. More than 150 pathogens have been found in livestock manure that are associated with risks to humans. Among those are the six pathogens that account for more than 90 percent of food and waterborne diseases in humans, including Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp. (non-typhoid), Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Giardia lamblia. Each of these organisms may be transmitted from one animal to another at an AFO. These organisms also have a relatively low infectious dose in humans (USEPA, 2002a, 2003a). Organisms such as Cryptosporidium that are relatively resistant to free chlorine and other common drinking water disinfection practices are of particular concern.